Water ChallengesRegistered Water Challenges
Register your city’s water challenge and vote for the two most
pressing water issues. Solutions to the two shortlisted water challenges and their
implementation plans will be further discussed at the WWCF
[Daegu - Optimal Processing/Management Mechanism for Non-Bio-Degradable Organic Matter (NBDOM) from “X” Sewage Treatment Plant]
Currently, Daegu Metropolitan City is operating a total of seven sewage treatment plants, managing 1.3 million tons of sewage water on a daily basis. In the case of “X” sewage plant, it processes not only sewage water but also wastewater from three paper mills located nearby the plant itself. Wastewater from paper manufacture stems from recycling waste paper and worsens the efficiency of the sewage treatment plant with its high content of non-bio-degradable organic matter. Now, the wastewater from paper manufacture comprises 40% of the total inflow to the plant, which has a sizable impact on the quality of both influent and effluent. Recently, measures are being taken to include the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the effluent standards, speaking of which, the current TOC concentration of treated water exceeds the expected effluent standard.
The processing capacity of “X” sewage treatment plant, which is a facility that manages both household sewage and wastewater, is 45,000 ㎥/day. Presently, the average inflow is 28,000 ㎥/day, among which wastewater from the paper mills accounts for 10,000㎥/day (about 40% of the entire processing capacity). With insufficient information on the quality of wastewater from the paper mills, large amounts of unprocessed wastewater enter the sewage plant, making stable water quality management challenging. As a result, the current situation requires enhanced biological treatment like the A2O process to precede additional chemical treatment.
▷ Key specs
Basic Information about “X” Sewage Treatment Plant
- Facility capacity: 45,000 ㎥/day (initially 23,000 ㎥/day with the extension of 22,000㎥/day)
- Treatment Mechanism: A2O (Biological Nutrient Removal System) + Coagulation & Precipitation Process
- Average inflow per day: 28,000㎥/day (proportion of wastewater from the paper mills: 38%)
- Water quality : influent quality (BOD 107.5mg/L, TOC 92.6mg/L), Effluent quality (BOD 0.9mg/L, TOC 13~15mg/L)
▷ Additional Info
[Leeuwarden - A test bed for innovative water technologies with a portfolio of projects aiming for long term sustainable goals]
Leeuwarden is the capital of the province of Friesland, one of the 12 provinces in the Netherlands.
The province is part of a delta, which means that the pollution carried by the large rivers is deposited in this area and most of the province is below sea level. So we are one of the areas that will suffer the consequences of climate change.
The history of our province and with it of the city of Leeuwarden has been marked by the struggle against water for centuries.
Around the turn of the century, it was decided to look at how this struggle against water could also be translated into new economic opportunities: water as a driver for innovation.
We have taken up this new challenge programmatically. In other words, we developed a portfolio of projects (and that process is still continuing) that should give shape to the above ambition.
This all started with improving the water quality of the many waterways in the municipality of Leeuwarden. We also invested in building up an international knowledge position (including Wetsus) and a business cluster (Wateralliance).
As provincial and municipal government, we support the further expansion of our position through investments in talent, technology and many model projects. In doing so, we as governments play various roles (e.g. what- and regulations, subsidy, launching customer, host of foreign delegations etc.).
The province of Fryslan;
The approach is not limited to the borders of the City of Leeuwarden
▷ Key Specs
Water as driver for economics development
[Kumamoto - Preserving groundwater quality and creating a platform for relevant data sharing]
All of the water resources used by Kumamoto City`s 740,000 citizens are entirely supplied by groundwater. For this reason, we have created partnerships with the prefectural government and our ten neighboring municipalities, as well as with businesses and citizens in the region, to undertake vatious groundwater conservation efforts. Moving forward, it is imperative that we work together to sustainably preserve our groundwater`s quality and its water reserves.
In terms of population, the region has about one million residents across an area of 1,000 square kilometers (which includes our ten neighboring municipalities and the encompass kumamoto prefecture, all of whom share our water supply).
Many of our neighboring municipalities are undergoing urbanization, and, as a result, the amount of land that can be used to recharge our groundwater supply decreased by 85% from 1976 to 2014, which has caused the groundwater level to recede for many years. To counteract this, we are currently developing projects to artificially recharge groundwater through rice field inundation projects in Kumamoto and other municipalities.
Furthermore, although our groundwater quality has been consistently evaluated favorably, one portion of the Kumamoto region has shown an increasing concentration of nitrate nitrogen. For this reason, we have established a fertilizer center, begun working with local agrarian families on fertilization countermeasures, and created programs to conduct proper domestic animal excrement disposal.
In this way, municipal administrations, local farmers, and businesses have been working together for quite a while to pursue groundwater conservation.
Leaders from 49 countries will gather at the Asia Pacific Water Summit on April 23rd and 24th, 2022 to discuss each country`s water issues and contribute to finding solutions to the Asia-Pacific region`s water problems.
Moving forward, we need to create a database of all of the measures that have been taken in each city to solve their respective issues with the goal of achieving the 6th Sustainable Development Goal (clean water and sanitation) without leaving anyone behind. We believe it is necessary to create a platform that allows cities with the same water problems to easily reference the database and broadcast this information out. We believe that the WWCF can be that platform.
▷ Additional info
[Yixing - Intelligent, modular and assembled construction of sewage treatment plants]
Urban sewage treatment is one of the important market segments of Yixing’s water treatment industry. With the acceleration of China`s urbanization and the continuous improvement of low-carbon city standards, urban sewage treatment has a broad market potential.
At present, the main structure of sewage treatment plant is a large hydraulic structure-traditional concrete structure, with long construction cycle, large material consumptions and high labor costs. These non-renewable resources consume a lot of resources and energy, which goes against the theory of low-carbon and sustainable economic development. In addition, the cost of concrete construction of urban sewage treatment plant continues to increase, so that the construction cost of sewage treatment plant from 45dollar/m³ to about 105dollar/m³, the traditional concrete structure is not an economic choice.
As China`s urbanization continues to accelerate, the problem of inadequate environmental infrastructure planning is gradually emerging. In order to alleviate the time gap between the planning of environmental facilities and the actual situation, the importance of the emergency treatment sewage plant in the transition stage is highlighted, which brings a huge space for the growth of the Intelligent, modular and assembled construction of sewage treatment plants system.
If the prefabricated sewage treatment plant is constructed, all materials are made of high quality 304 stainless steel. Through technical research and development, the purpose of modular design, intelligent manufacturing and on-site assembly of hydraulic structures can be achieved. Its cost is 20%-30% cheaper than the concrete structure, and the theoretical life is more than twice as long as the traditional structure, the construction cycle is 70% shorter than the traditional model, and can be disassembly and mobile.
The whole treatment system uses stainless steel standard module, intelligent manufacturing and on-site assembly. The whole construction process will save 90% of the concrete, 100% of the wood, 90% of the water resources, reduce 90% of the construction waste, dust, noise in the construction process to reduce 90%, save 80% of the construction period, save 60% of the land, and after the demolition of the reuse rate can reach 80%.
And after the removal of the sewage plant, the reuse rate of the whole construction material can reach 80%, and in the extension of life, convenient transportation, high residual value also shows great advantages.
[Mikkeli - Educating and recruiting young professionals in the water sector]
Mikkeli is located in eastern Finland, South Savo region by the Lake Saimaa. Mikkeli has a population of 53,781 and covers an area of 3,229.57 km2 of which 424.7 km2 is water. The population density is 31.64 inhabitants per km2.
Challenge: Aging personnel in water sector. Educating and recruiting young professionals
Water and sanitation infrastructure in Finland was built in 1960s and 1970s. In Mikkeli water supply infrastructure is up to date and a new MBR WWT plant is being commissioned in 2021. Rest of municipalities in South Savo Region are facing the must do investments in upcoming years. The technology leap sets a huge challenge in aspect of human resources, educated personnel. Not only infrastructure but also personnel working in the water sector is aging. Young professionals are fairly scarce and the difficult to recruit.
Mikkeli is located in eastern Finland, South Savo region by the Lake Saimaa.
Mikkeli has a population of 53,781 and covers an area of 3,229.57 km2 of which 424.7 km2 is water. The population density is 31.64 inhabitants per km2.
New MBR WWT plant being commissioned 2021.
Includes water reclamation plant, R&D- and testing- & piloting-facilities.
Strong R&D activities.
Concept being developed: WWTP as resource factory
[Bangkok - Ensuring access to safe water through proper water tank management]
The water supply is very important for consumption. Especially, in COVID-19 situation, the water supply could be a part of preventing the spread and be one of self-care.
Nowadays, The Metropolitan Waterworks Authority (MWA) is responsible for supplying the clean and high quality water to customers who live in service areas. We put our effort and care in every steps of water supply production. Taking care of customers’ water tanks is one of our challenges because this is not our duty but a concern about customers’ health.
More than 50% of customers having water tanks have been using incorrectly because water tanks should be cleaned every 6 months. Therefore, this is our concern for being agents who could take care of customers’ water tanks in every conditions whether it be water tanks for homes, commercial buildings, hospitals, condominium or airports.
For water supplied in Bangkok, Nonthaburi and Samut Prakan provinces.
These provinces have approximately 8 million people or around 12% of Thailand’s population.
We intend to build teams that would be enough for managing every customers’ requests in our service areas. We also publicize the steps of cleaning water tanks via social medias. This fits for someone who needs to know and clean water tanks by themselves. Moreover, we recruit some citizens and make them having plumbing knowledge so it could be another career path for them or they would be one of our partner in the future. Then, researching new innovations, that use only a few steps for cleaning water tanks, take less time, be available to everyone and be cheap, is in progress.
[Shaoxing - Seeking comprehensive and innovative strategies for the management and restoration of plain river ecology]
With the acceleration of urbanization, the water quality of the plain river network has been polluted by various factors, the ecological environment around the river has been damaged, and the ecological service function of the river has been seriously degraded. After the traditional river treatment method and the basic measures such as sewage pipe, the self-purification and natural characteristics of the river can not be restored.
After some channels of plain river network are polluted for a period of time, the indexes such as sediment, dissolved oxygen, organic matter in water body and water viscosity are abnormal. The flood discharge capacity is poor, the water self-purification capacity is poor, and the ecological environment deteriorates.
It is hoped that through the World Water City Partnership, more practical and advanced biological, physical, chemical and other comprehensive methods will be used to scientifically design the revetment, section, ecology and landscape, and provide innovative strategies for river ecological management and ecological restoration.
[Bogota - Implementing the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and taking the lead in the drinking water and sanitation sector]
Bogota, capital of the Republic of Colombia, is located in the geographic center of the national territory at 2,600 meters above sea level, on the eastern edge of the Sabana de Bogota, which is the highest plateau in the Colombian Andes. It has a total area of 1776 km² and an urban area of 307 km².
Minimum altitude: 2 600 meters altitude
Maximum altitude: 3 250 meters altitude
Latitude: 4 ° 36 `36` `North
Longitude: 74 ° 4 `55` `West
UTC -5: 00 (America / Bogota)
Summer time and winter time are the same as standard time
Due to its altitude, Bogota has a cold mountain climate. The region has an average temperature of 14 ° C. The dry and wet seasons alternate throughout the year. The driest months are January, February, March and December, and the wettest are April, May, September, October and November. In the intermediate months there are variations in the sun and rain regime. The regularity of these conditions is diverse due to the effect of the climatic changes that have occurred in the Pacific Basin, especially due to the phenomena called El Nino and La Nina.
Surface: 1.775 km²
Population: 7,181 millones (2018)
We are an Industrial and Commercial Company Official of Bogota, Capital District, provider of domiciliary public services of Water supply and sanitary and storm sewers, endowed with legal status, administrative autonomy and independent patrimony. The Capital District owns 100% of the Company.
In our 132 years of experience, we have achieved:
· 2.306.679 subscribers in Water Supply and 2.254.353 in sanitary sewer services.
· Water Supply and Sewerage services to 1 neighboring municipality, and Water Supply to other 11 neighboring municipalities, as much as to other 6 companies.
· Residential coverage that exceeds 99% in Water supply, and 98.5% coverage in sanitary and storm sewers.
We are a financially strong company, growing and with business opportunities at the national and international level. We are AAA rating for our high cash generation and reinvesting our profits in projects to expand our services.
The technological and scientific projects we carry out, place us at the forefront in the drinking water and basic sanitation sector. We are pioneers in the use of cutting-edge technologies in order to reduce the environmental and mobility impacts produced by the works. Through our Control Center we operate in real time and automatically more than 17 thousand kilometers of networks.
In our environmental commitment, we take care of more than 40 thousand hectares in Chingaza Natural Reserve and 5 thousand in the hills of the capital.
We protect, conserve and recover the water resource of the region.
We work in sanitation of 4 large rivers, the recovery of more than 100 streams, 13 wetlands and the maintenance of the city`s canals.
We are the first company in Colombia to generate Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) to reduce greenhouse gases on the planet, through the production of clean energy at the Santa Ana hydroelectric plant. We are the first public service company in Colombia to be certified as carbon neutral by ICONTEC.
Our meter laboratories, as well as the water laboratories, are accredited, so we supply reliable data to national and international clients.
Our leadership in the sector allows us to offer consulting services, business management, operation, rate structure, institutional planning, infrastructure, contracting processes, technical standardization, network registry and a number of processes that contribute to the growth of companies and improvement of corporate indicators.
[Orange County - Securing a resilient, reliable, and affordable water supply through the implementation of various programs under the theme of sustainability]
The Municipal Water District of Orange County (MWDOC) is a wholesale water supplier and resource planning agency whose efforts focus on sound planning and appropriate investments in water supply development, water use efficiency, public information, legislative advocacy, water education and emergency preparedness.
Established in 1951, MWDOC now serves over 3.2 million Orange County residents through 28 retail water agencies. MWDOC’s service area covers all of Orange County with the exception of the cities of Anaheim, Fullerton and Santa Ana.
Local water supplies meet roughly half of Orange County’s total water demand. To meet the remaining demand, The Municipal Water District of Orange County (MWDOC) purchases approximately 70.2 billion gallons of imported water per year - from northern California and the Colorado River - through the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (Metropolitan). MWDOC delivers this water to its 28 member agencies, who in turn, provide retail water services to the public.
Water Supply Development
MWDOC is committed to providing a reliable supply of high quality water for Orange County now, and long into the future. Working closely with Metropolitan and our 28 member agencies, MWDOC studies and evaluates opportunities to improve Orange County’s water supply resources and overall system reliability. Understanding local planning challenges and developing regional stakeholder partnerships, MWDOC works to expand Orange County’s water supply portfolio by providing planning assistance and local resource development in the areas of recycled water, groundwater recharge, ocean water desalination and conservation.
Orange County is in a semi-arid desert climate, and we average just over 12 inches a year of rain. With that being said, we do not have sufficient water supplies to meet the needs of our residents and businesses, which requires us to find alternative water supplies. In addition, Orange County itself serves a very diverse and large region, so the north half of the county has much more reliable local supplies (due to the groundwater basin managed by Orange County Water District). On the other hand, the southern part of Orange County does not have the geographical benefits of a bowl shaped aquifer (South Orange County sits over an underground creek that flows into the ocean), so the southern part of Orange County has far more water supply and water reliability challenges from that perspective (currently, north county is about 50-70% dependent on local supply, whereas south county is 80-100% dependent on imported water supply). Additionally, our imported water supply is heavily dependent on annual precipitation (stored in the snowpack), and with changing climate trends, we have been seeing more and more variability in the availability of our imported water supply. Therefore, we are making many investments to diversify our water supply, both locally and statewide.
Securing a resilient, reliable, and affordable water supply is our highest priority, and many of our other programs (listed below) were developed as a way to support our primary goal of securing a sustainable water supply for our community,
Water Use Efficiency
MWDOC has created award-winning programs that target all water users. Through an innovative, multi-agency approach, MWDOC develops, implements, and evaluates water use efficiency programs that provide multiple benefits. Programs include educational classes, performance reporting, water use surveys and consumer incentives for water-efficient devices. Through the development, implementation and evaluation of these programs, Orange County saves more than 17.1 billion gallons of water each year.
Orange County has long been a leader in promoting water use efficiency, and we have been deeply involved with the creation of new state regulations; however, we have a long way to go, as we still have significant opportunities to increase water use efficiency outdoors. We are also facing challenges with unintended consequences of too much indoor conservation, by means of increased collection system maintenance and issues with odor control, higher strength wastewater, less recycled water, and more. Also, homes are still being built with plumbing standards that do not account for the lower flows and higher solids concentrations, so we are starting to see more issues at the residential level, as well.
MWDOC also provides guidance on water audits for our retail agencies, and we recently launched a regional leak detection program. Currently, we are developing a pilot program to evaluate indoor water use practices and collect data at a more granular level than previous efforts.
The Water Emergency Response Organization of Orange County (WEROC), which is administered by MWDOC, provides mutual aid planning assistance, and effectively trains member agency volunteers throughout the year, to coordinate and deliver skillful emergency response for all Orange County water and wastewater agencies.
WEROC works closely with the County of Orange, the Orange County Fire Authority, the California Department of Public Health and other entities to ensure a thorough and well-coordinated emergency response in the event of a disaster.
Public Information and Outreach
MWDOC is steadfast in its mission to keep Orange County involved and up-to-date on current water news, water-saving opportunities and pending policy matters through its award-winning public information and outreach programs. Every year MWDOC hosts regularly scheduled Water Policy Symposiums, Elected Officials Forums, educational tours, and co-sponsors the annual O.C. Water Summit in order to engage and educate elected officials, community and business leaders, water industry professionals and the general public about water issues affecting Orange County and beyond. Additionally, MWDOC produces public service announcements and educational collateral pieces including videos, presentations, and briefing papers to ensure our stakeholders are equipped and well versed on issues facing the water industry. MWDOC further engages the public by participating in community events, having an active speakers bureau, and a robust award-winning social media presence.
Educating the water leaders of tomorrow since 1973, MWDOC’s School Program offers one of the most well-recognized water-education curriculums in southern California. Today, working with the Discovery Cube and Inside the Outdoors, MWDOC has provided nearly three million Orange County students with grade-specific lessons that focus on topics like the water cycle, forms of water and water as an environmental resource.
Through strong leadership and sound representation at Metropolitan, MWDOC works diligently to secure a dependable water future for all Orange County. This includes unwavering advocacy on behalf of the service area on issues such as water resource and infrastructure planning, development of imported water rates and charges, and sponsorship of statewide water policy that supports regional reliability. MWDOC staff and consultants regularly examine pending legislation and provide updates to the Board of Directors monthly. Through this process, the Board of Directors regularly take “official positions” on specific legislative proposals and public policy issues based on MWDOC’s adopted Legislative Policy Principles. The MWDOC Board of Directors, management, staff, and consultants monitor and shape state and federal legislation that impacts the water community and the region as a whole, advocating on behalf of Orange County.
[Jhelum - Optimization of existing sewerage and drainage system and installation of wastewater treatment systems]
Being at the foothills of the Salt range, most of groundwater in district Jhelum is saline. The drinking water to the local community is being provided through installation of tube wells at the bank of River Jhelum and small springs originating from the Salt range. There is acute shortage of drinking water in the area. The area lying between river Jhelum and Salt range is comprised of virgin land. The groundwater and discharge brought by hill torrents are saline, therefore irrigation is being practiced just on edge of river Jhelum, whilst remaining area of about 160,000 acres is deprived of any irrigation supply. Therefore, farmers are mainly practicing rainfed agriculture.
The water quality in district Jhelum is facing severe challenges due to untreated disposal of domestic wastewater. In most of the tehsils of district Jhelum wastewater is flowing openly or in open small drains which are not connected to any main drain. As a result, proper sewerage collection system is not in place. Moreover, solid waste like plastic bags blocks the sewer lines.
The wastewater without any treatment is either used for irrigation or dumped into the local ponds or into Jhelum river. The wastewater discharges from human activities in various tehsils of Jhelum has not only caused fouling, problems for pedestrian’s movements but also resulted in waterborne and vector-based diseases.
The wastewater mixing in surface water and seepage into the groundwater is also deteriorating the water quality in various areas due to higher load of microbial and nitrate contamination. If the untreated municipal waste is allowed to be continuously dumped into soil and water bodies specifically the river Jhelum; this may result into serious public health and ecological threats in the near future.
Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) conducted a detailed study on groundwater assessment and quality of the area. The study shows that fresh water supply is scarce and vulnerable in terms of its availability, quantity and quality. There is only a shallow and small fresh groundwater pocket existing near Jalalpur village, whereas the groundwater of the remaining tehsil is highly saline and unacceptable for drinking.
PCRWR also conducted a detailed investigation during 2019-20 to elucidate the wastewater impacts and treatments needs analysis in the district. Accordingly, Pind Dadan Khan, Sohawa and Dina tehsils of Jhelum district have shown a grave situation with respect to wastewater pollution and lack of sewerage collection and treatment system.
The water and wastewater treatment is important before the health and hygiene of the people living in these areas suffer further. To achieve the SDG 6 Target 6.3, at least 50% of the produced wastewater needs to be treated by 2030. Thus, the approach of recycling, reduce and reuse of wastewater should be introduced for safe and environmentally sustainable way of wastewater utilization.
1. Optimization of existing sewerage and drainage system: Proper sewerage and drainage system including sewage collection should be placed in all the urban and rural areas of district Jhelum.
2. Installation of wastewater treatment systems: The wastewater treatment using appropriate site specific treatment methods such as constructed wetlands using bioremediation, bio-cleaner, sewage treatment plant etc. should be introduced with defined modalities for sustainable operation.
3. Capacity Building: To help the local communities to have access to safe water quality, the capacity of Public Health Engineering Department, Tehsil Municipal administration and village water committees/associations should be enhanced for disinfection of drinking water sources and water storage bodies as well as regular water quality monitoring.
If needed detailed technical reports of Jhelum city may be downloaded from the webpage of Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (www.pcrwr.gov.pk)